Containerization means the increasing use of the containers as a support for freight transportation. It involves processes where the containers are increasingly used because it either substitutes cargo from other means of transport or it is adopted as a mode supporting freight distribution ,the reason being that a large number of transport systems are able to handle containers. Both inter modal transportation and containerization are mutually connected, self strengthening and depend on a set of driving forces linked with technology, infrastructures and management. One of the major issues were the different sizes and dimensions of containers used by shipping lines, which were a source of much confusion in compiling container shipping statistics. The loading could involve different volumes since different box sizes were involved. The usage of containers has helped in a faster movement and a standardization of loads. The container has substantially contributed to the adoption and diffusion of inter modal transportation which has led to a lot of changes. Through reduction of handling time, labor costs, and packing costs, container transportation allows a considerable improvement in the efficiency of transportation. Thus, the importance of containers is not what they are but what they enable. A major change in freight transportation could not have taken its current form without containerization. It can be rightly said that the maritime sector should have been the first mode to pursue containerization. It was the means of transport less used because of the time taken to load and unload the vessels.


Containerization permits the mechanized handling of cargoes of different types and sizes that are placed into boxes of standard sizes. Thus goods that took days to be loaded or unloaded from a ship can now be handled in a matter of minutes. Containers are either made of steel (the most common for maritime containers) or aluminum (particularly for domestic) thus helping in the flexibility. Another reason for greater movement of the container is through the implementation of International Standards Organization (ISO) within 10 years of its introduction. Because of this ,large container sizes and specifications have been put in use. The most commonly used container size is however the 40 foot box, which in its 2,400 cubic feet which carry on average 22 tons of cargo. However, transporting cargo in a 20 ft container is usually 80% of the cost of transporting cargo in a 40 ft container because irrespective of the size a 20 ft container requires the same amount of inter modal movements even if it takes about half the space. A significant share of international containers are either owned by big shipping lines. In few countries , a large amount of domestic containers of 53 foot are also used. Double stacking of containers on railways (COFC: Containers On Flat Cars) has doubled the capacity of trains to haul freight with minimal cost , thereby improving the competitive position of the railways with regards to loading freight for long-haul shipments. The maritime containers are used in international trade, and other types of containers are found in the airline industry. Increased labor costs and the slowness of loading , that require a very rapid turnaround, made the industry very receptive to the concept of a loading unit of standard dimensions designed to fit the specific shape. shipping management courses in kerala

Women in Logistics Industry

The logistics industry has always been known as a male-dominated industry. Even in the 21st century, this is one of the only industries where still 70 per cent is dominated by men the number of women working at the top levels or in the operations department is far less than the number of men despite the fact that women have it in them what it takes to face the unique challenges of logistics and supply chain management by developing and implementing innovative solutions and optimising strategies that touches almost every aspect of a company and affect the various levels of an organization. Logistics contributes almost about 14 per cent to India’s GDP and if you include all service providers and modes of transport, it is also the industry with the largest employment base and maximum opportunities for jobs .Hard work and aptitude are the ultimate qualities, which guarantees one’s survival, growth and success in any industry .

Logistics courses in india today is one of the most important and relevant sectors of our economy. Women are hard working, committed and capable of any job whether it demands physical, intellectual or emotional strength .It is a fact that women, though involved at every step, with issues affecting the logistics sector, thereby, making a vital contribution to the growth of the industry are not employed in positions that require decision making. Despite having examples demonstrating women succeeding not only in sectors where traditionally they have had a strong presence, but also reaching leading positions in sectors that were previously believed to be the exclusive domain of men, the women find themselves disadvantaged in finding and keeping their jobs in this sector. Logistics sector is still male-dominated and, unfortunately, women have been underrepresented in this sector, though they are doing well in other sectors. This has been caused by mainly two reasons: First being women’s lack of interest in working in such environments (for example, transport) and different barriers that limited their access to male-dominated working environments. Still, the number of women in the logistics industry barely reaches expected level. Working environment, working hour and dealing with drivers makes this field more complex to work rather than banking or teaching job.

There has been a change in acceptance of women and also many women leaders rise in the industry to the top most positions, and that has been the most encouraging sign .To attract the women in this industry, it is imperative to educate them of the opportunities available and what this industry has to offer. Women who join the logistics industry need to know that it is a service industry and need to have good verbal and written communication skills, knowledge of logistical processes and procedures, focus on customer service and orientation, have a sharp business acumen along with strong analytical and problem-solving skills. The consideration that logistics industry is not meant for women is contentious as much as there is a growing recognition that there is a need for diversity at the senior management level in every industry. The rationale behind integrating women into this industry stems from the belief that women have greater aptitude in key skill areas as process improvement, organisation, planning and communication .All the women in this industry today are at powerful positions and are at par with the men. Thus in times to come this percentage will only increase.


Warehousing means the safe preservation of products till they’re sent to the shoppers. Generally, there’s a time gap between the assembly and consumption of product. By bridging this gap, storage creates time utility. Some quantity of products is keep at each stage within the promoting method. Proper and adequate arrangements to retail the products in good condition area unit essential for fulfillment in promoting. Storage allows firms to hold on production of products in anticipation of demand in future. A warehouse could be a place used for the storage or accumulation of products. Warehouses alter the businessmen to hold on production throughout the year and to sell their product, whenever there’s adequate demand. Need for warehouse arises additionally as a result of some merchandise area unit made solely in a very explicit season however area unit demanded throughout the year. Equally bound product area unit made throughout the year however demanded solely throughout a specific season. Re-position facilitates production and distribution on an out sized scale logistics colleges in kerala.


1.Regular production: Raw materials ought to be kept to alter production to be carried on unceasingly. Sometimes, merchandise area unit keep in anticipation of an increase in costs. Warehouses alter makers to provide merchandise in anticipation of demand in future.

2. Time utility: A warehouse creates time utility by transportation the time gap between the assembly and consumption of products. It helps in creating offered the products whenever needed or demanded by the shoppers Some merchandise area unit made throughout the year however demanded solely throughout explicit seasons, e.g., wool, raincoat, umbrella, heater, etc. on the opposite hand, some product area unit demanded throughout the year however they’re made in bound region, e.g., wheat, rice, potatoes, etc. merchandise like rice, tobacco, liquor and sugar become a lot of valuable with the passage of your time.

3. Storage of surplus goods: Basically, a warehouse acts as a store of surplus merchandise that aren’t required in real time. Merchandise area unit usually made in anticipation of demand and wish to be preserved properly till they’re demanded by the shoppers. Merchandise that aren’t needed in real time are often keep in a very warehouse to satisfy the demand in future.

4. Cost stabilization : Warehousing helps to bring about a lot of changes in costs by storing merchandise once their offer exceeds demand and by cathartic them once the demand is quite immediate productions. Warehouses guarantee an everyday offer of products within the market. This matching of offer with demand helps to stabilise costs.

5. Products are insured: Warehouses offer for the safe custody of products. Biodegradable products are often preserved in cold storage. By keeping their merchandise in warehouses, businessmen will minimise the loss from harm, fire, theft etc. the products unbroken within the warehouse area unit usually insured. Just in case of loss or harm to the products, the owner of products will get full compensation from the insurance firm.

6. Packing : Goods must be processed enough so that it is acceptable for human use, e.g., coffee, tobacco, etc. a contemporary warehouse provides facilities for process, packing, blending, grading etc., of the products for the aim of sale. The possible consumers will examine the products unbroken in a very warehouse.

7. Financing: Warehouses offer a receipt to the owner of products for the products unbroken within the warehouse. The owner will borrow cash against the protection of products by creating associate degree endorsement on the warehouse receipt. In some countries, warehouse authorities advance cash against the products deposited within the warehouse.

Logistics Sector In India

Logistics Sector In India

Logistics is thought of to be a mutually essential industry for economic process because it is the management of the flow of merchandise from the place of their origin to the place of their consumption, so the trade conjointly involves the mixing of fabric handling, deposition, packaging, transportation, shipping security, inventory management, provide chain management, procural, and USCB. The worldwide supplying trade principally consists of a fancy vary of freight and freight connected transportation sectors, like shipping,deposition, courier, and road/rail/air freight.

Over succeeding few years the worldwide logistics market can see the expansion in demand far from ancient Western economies to the rising markets of China, India and alternative Asian countries. The logistics sector in India has at the moment become a region of priority.The massive volume of traffic has paved means for growth opportunities all told fields of supplying as well as transportation, deposition, forwarding, specific freight delivery, instrumentalityservices, shipping services etc.The expansion path shows thata rise in demand is being placed on the world to supply the solutions needed for supporting future growth. Strength of the logistics sector is probably going to be one in every of the key determinants of the pace of the longer term growth of the economy .The government policies have attracted a robust growth space for supplying within the future. Logistics is that the backbone of the economy, providing associate degree economical, value effective flow of products on that alternative business sectors depends. The supplying trade in India is evolving quickly and it’s the interaction of infrastructure, technology, and new kinds of service suppliers which will outline whether or not the trade is ready to assist its customers cut back their supplying prices and supply economical services. The supplying trade is additionally hampered by low rates of technology adoption and poor talent levels. On the technology front the trade currently looks to be paying serious attention with use of RFID, vehicle chase technologies, warehouse management system etc. Whereas acceptance is maybe isn’t a problem any longer, the wedding between IT and domain demand has to be resolved. Automation in processes remains solely in its infancy. Any progress relies on a definite level of standardization that is created harder by the fragmentation within the trade. This disadvantage has to be tackled at the earliest. Additionally to the technology connected problems the talent levels of within the supplying trade conjointly need to be upgraded desperately. As of currently courses specializing in supplying trade stay few and conjointly supplying trade remains not checked out because the trade of selection for young graduates thereby creating hiring of quality skilled force difficult.

The various challenges faced by the logistics sector cause high supplying prices incurred by the Indian economy.This is often despite the very fact that value of labour, one in every of the foremost vital contributors to supplying prices in developed countries, is considerably cheaper in India. With regards to prices of spends on supplying, India’s logistics sector accounts for thirteen of the gross domestic product of India.

Major parts of logistics prices usually embody transportation, deposition, inventory management and alternative worth additional services like packaging.What is worrying regarding supplying prices in India is that the distribution of prices across numerous heads. In India, the maximum amount as thirty first of the supplying prices is due to the ‘others’ class, that primarily includes numerous kinds of method. The logistics colleges in kerala prices as a proportion of total product value in India is within the vary of 4-5 times that in developed countries.This is often at a time once the standard of supplying services provided isn’t of the very best standards. Also, worryingly, these prices are showing a rising trend. Fuel value hike sharply will increase the price of freight transport.

Ship Speed

Speed optimization for fuel potency typically suggests that to control at a lowest ship speed that’s technically possible. This is often said as “slow steaming” that may be coated during a subsequent section. Terminologies used for ship speed is commonly confusing, so herein varied definitions are provided first:

Style speed: Technically a ship is meant for a selected operational speed (design M3 from Management to Operation Module three – Page thirty four speed). Generally, throughout ship style and selection of machinery, the engine and ship hull type and main dimensions are optimised for this operational condition. Engine and hull-propeller efficiencies commonly tend to cut back on the far side this technically-optimal style speed. The term design speed” has significance once relationship between ship-owner and ship-builder are considered. It is a part of the written agreement needs between the 2 parties; and is often assessed and confirmed throughout the initial speed trial (commissioning trial) of the ship.

Slow steaming: This term refers to running a ship at a significantly lower speed than its vogue speed. Typically slow steaming refers to ship speeds that area unit achieved once the foremost engine’s load could be a smaller quantity than 60 minutes MCR. This is often a form of in agreement definition between the majority of business. This implies that smaller levels of speed reductions achieved below voyage and port management (as delineate in Sections 5) do not represent the category of “slow steaming”. Despite the technically optimised hull-propeller-engine for a ship’s vogue speed, it’ll merely be in-contestible that as a result of the ship speed reduces, the hull resistance reduces further significantly than its corresponding impacts on varied propulsion efficiencies; therefore reducing the ship’s fuel consumption per tonne-mile carried. This important reduction in resistances makes the use of slow steaming such a fairly preposition for the reduction of a ship’s fuel consumption From this angle, generally the lower the ship speed, the lower area unit attending to be the ship fuel consumption. The minimum speed below that a ship may operate is settled by the engine’s capability to run at low a whole lot. For engine’s integrity, it’s infeasible altogether cases to chop back ship speed very significantly.

Ship economic speed: This term is usually used in shipping and in point of fact is usually a vicinity of the charter-party agreements. It generally suggests that a speed at that the ship transport as a full yields the only cash results below the given constraints of engine power, ocean conditions, port and waterways dues, and completely different commercial/financial wants of the charterer. In trade, typically the ship economic speed is perceived as a result of the most effective ship speed for energy efficiency. Below the slow steaming, extreme speed reduction is usually useful for fuel consumption reduction.

Service speed: Service speed refers to the everyday speed maintained by a ship below ancient load and weather. This is often unremarkably adore ship vogue speed as delineate above; however, it should take issue in cases where a ship’s vogue speed has been stricken by its operation history.

Most speed: This term defines the utmost speed of a ship that the ship-owner claims the ship abundant will do. It is un-remarkably the speed of the vessel below full engine MCR. As such, ship most speed is over the ship vogue speed that is un-remarkably like at ninetieth MCR (taking into thought relevant ocean margins). The origin of this term is from the link between charterer and ship owner and un-remarkably this term might appear in relevant contracts. The on prime of ship speeds would vary from one ship to the other and may be influenced by hull kind, engine vogue, age of the vessel, industrial and legal wants then on. As an example, with fashionable engines with electronically controlled mechanical system , a wider vary best operation, as a perform of load, is possible so giving tons of flexibility in terms of slow steaming additionally as a result of the choice of ship economic speed then on shipping courses in kerala

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